interval of 1.6 hours and a photometric precision of better than 0.10mag even at I=19 has been clearly demonstrated. ..... For the MACHO team, this has typically meant sampling intervals of â¼24 hours or more for .... experience with a particular pr
M. Albrow1,2, J.-P. Beaulieu3, P. Birch4, J. A. R. Caldwell1, S. Kane5,6, R. Martin4, ... 1996), while still others are beginning to collect data in the LMC (Abe et al. ..... of the light curve will be somewhat flattened (Witt & Mao 1994, Peng 1997),
Sep 5, 2013 - the Î² Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of ..... parallactic angle rotation), and stacked to create a companion-free reduction. The 1Ï ..... In the last section, we showed how to
3Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA ... Upgrades in the program are opening regions of âexoplanet dis- .... OGLE data were taken.
D. P. Bennetta, I. Bondb, E. Chengc, S. Friedmand, P. Garnavicha, B. Gaudie, R. Gillilandd, A. Gould f, M. Greenhouse g, ... This includes free- floating planets ejected from their host stars. MPF uses the gravitational microlensing technique which i
Dec 1, 2006 - ous monitoring is required, which is achieved by PLANET : âProbing Lensing. Anomalies NETworkâ. ... biting its M-dwarf host star at â¼ 2.6 AU.
Jul 23, 2015 - ernment for operation as a National Facility managed by. CSIRO. ... 781, 119. Phinney E. S., Hansen B. M. S., 1993, in Astronomical Society of.
the faint planetary signal in the presence of this highly dominant bright source. In other words, the bright star always .... If indeed these events towards the LMC are due to stars, it opens a new possibility to look for planets around .... Dds is t
Figure 1. Rudi Mandl, shown here in the 1930s in Washington DC where he made a living as a busboy and washing dishes, persuaded Einstein to publish his 1936 paper on gravitational lensing. Photo courtesy Tom ..... New microlensing projects have recen
Apr 28, 1997 - Microlensing occurs when a foreground compact object (like a star) moves between an observer and a luminous background object (like another star). The gravitational field of the foreground lens alters the path of the light from the bac
Greg Laughlin from the University of Santa Cruz provided a comprehensive .... ence of giant planets and the metallicity of the central star (Johnson & Apps ...
Jan 3, 2011 - The population synthesis calculations we use are based on the planet ...... in all cases in the sense that stars hosting planets are, on aver-.
Aug 23, 2010 - young stars as targets, to develop a rigorous quantitative method for constructing our observing strategy, and to optimize the ... preliminary results. The NICI Planet-Finding Campaign represents the largest and most sensitive imaging
period), 55 Cnc (m sin i â¼ 0.78mJ , 14.7 day period) and 47 UMa (m sin i â¼ 2.4mJ , 1090 day period) con- .... A sample observing program like that advocated in the Roadmap for the Exploration of Neighboring ... examples of averaging the Bennett a
3. Fig. 2: Space-based microlensing (MPF) is sensitive to planets above the purple curve in the mass vs. semi-major axis plane. The gold, green and cyan regions indicate the sensitivities of radial velocity surveys, SIM and Kepler, respectively. Our
Mar 27, 2013 - are monitoring a very large number of stars in order to detect real time on going microlensing events and alert ... the events to increase the monitoring cadence and then sensitivity to exoplanets. From a ..... brand DUNE) in 2007 to E
ent data-analysis procedures lead to results which are only marginally consistent. Apart from the low-statistics problem â which will automatically disappear from future larger data samples â we feel that the real question is whether the standard
These are typically easy to resolve given good temporal coverage of the planetary ...... Since the mass is given by M = (c2/4G)ËreteÂµ, and since Ëre and te ... measurement gave the angle of motion, one could check this against the direction.
Oct 16, 2007 - Vogt, Chris McCarthy and Katie Peek for their helpful converstations, and ... Peek, Julia Kregenow, Howard Isaacson, Karin Sandstrom, Bernie ...
Oct 16, 2007 - **NAMES OF EDITORS**. Planets Around Massive Subgiants. John Asher ... We show how the cooler atmospheres and slower rotation velocities of subgiants make them ideal proxies for Fâ and .... doubles the stellar mass domain of the CCPS
Jan 3, 2011 - no signs of variability or duplicity (see Frink et al. 2001 for the detailed criteria), and these stars were observed beginning in June 1999. In June ...
Jun 5, 2013 - Each mass bin is weighted by this IMF, favoring lower masses over higher ones. We note that the effect of this prior is minimal, since each star has a narrow, well-defined mass posterior PDF. As a check, we computed the shift in the med
Jul 2, 2013 - 12Departamento de Fisica - ICEx - UFMG, Av. AntÃ´nio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG,. Brazil. 13Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road,. NW, Washington, DC 20015, USA
Oct 21, 2013 - a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the ... The study of exoplanets has advanced admirably in the last two decades, through the applica- tion of radial velocity, ... deco
**TITLE** ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME***, **YEAR OF PUBLICATION** **NAMES OF EDITORS**
arXiv:astro-ph/0309609v1 23 Sep 2003
The PLANET microlensing campaign: Implications for planets around galactic disk and bulge stars M. Dominik1 , M. D. Albrow2 , J.-P. Beaulieu3 , J. A. R. Caldwell4 , A. Cassan3 , C. Coutures5 , J. Greenhill6 , K. Hill6 , P. Fouqu´e5 , K. Horne1 , U. G. Jørgensen7 , S. Kane1 , D. Kubas8 , R. Martin9 , J. Menzies10 , K. R. Pollard2 , K. Sahu4 , J. Wambsganss8 , R. Watson6 , A. Williams9 1 University
of St Andrews, School of Physics & Astronomy, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, United Kingdom 2 University
of Canterbury, Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand 3 Institut
d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris,
France 4 Space
Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, U.S.A. 5 European
Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
of Tasmania, Physics Dept., G.P.O. 252C, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia 7 Astronomisk
Observatorium, Niels Bohr Institutet, Københavns Universitet, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 København Ø, Denmark 8 Universit¨ at
Potsdam, Institut f¨ ur Physik, Am neuen Palais 10, 14469 Potsdam, Germany 9 Perth
Observatory, Walnut Road, Bickley, Perth 6076, Australia
African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, South Africa Abstract. With round-the-clock monitoring of galactic bulge microlensing events, the PLANET experiment constrains the abundance and can yield the discovery of planets down to the mass of earth around galactic disk and bulge stars. Data taken until 1999 imply that less than 1/3 of bulge M-dwarfs are surrounded by jupiter-mass companions at orbital radii between 1 and 4 AU. The current rate of microlensing alerts allows 15–25 jupiters and 1–3 earths to be probed per year. Microlensing is sensitive to unseen planets of mass m at a projected orbital radius rp around unseen lens stars of mass M , mainly M-dwarfs (M ∼ 0.3 M⊙ ), at the distance DL that cause microlensing events of durations ∼ 1 month on background source stars at the distance DS . Distortions of 1–20 % to the microlensing light curve caused by a planet last from hours (earth) to days (jupiter) and their probability increases towards rp ∼ rE ∼ 2.5 AU, where 1
Dominik et al.
Figure 1. Fractions f (d, q) = 3/4, 2/3, 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 (inside to outside) of lens stars surrounded by a companion with mass ratio q = m/M at d = rp /rE that are excluded at 95 % C.L. √ rE = 2 RS D denotes the Einstein radius of the lens star, with RS = (2GM )/c2 being the Schwarzschild radius and D = DL (DS − DL )/DS . With generous time allocations at the observatories, PLANET (Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork) obtained a dense round-the-clock coverage of galactic bulge microlensing events in I with additional observations in R and V with its current network of 1m-class telescopes formed by SAAO 1.0m (South Africa), Danish 1.54m at ESO LaSilla (Chile), Canopus 1.0m (Tasmania), and Perth 0.6m (Western Australia), and also with Dutch 0.9m and 2.2m at ESO La Silla, 0.9m and Yale 1.0m at CTIO (Chile), and MSO 50” (Australia). The photometric precision of 1–2 %, dictating the exposure time with the target brightness, and a sampling interval of 1.5–2.5 hrs, allowing a characterization of distortions by jupiters, limit the number of events monitored to up to 20 events at the same time or 75 events per season (Dominik et al. 2002). The target monitored at any given time is selected with the aim to maximize the planet detection efficiency. Events with large peak magnification A0 are preferred but spending the whole observing time on such events is not optimal for obtaining results on the abundance of jupiters (Horne 2003), whereas all the information about earths will arise from events with A0 > ∼ 80 only. Currently, OGLE-III provides ∼ 500 and MOA provides ∼ 60 microlensing alerts per year, which will allow PLANET to probe 15–25 jupiters and 1–3 earths per year. If no planetary distortions are observed, the abundance limits from three years of observations will be 4–7 % for jupiters and ∼ 40 % for earths. The figure shows the limits on the abundance of planets resulting from monitoring 42 events by PLANET between 1995 and 1999 (Gaudi et al. 2002). References Dominik, M., et al. 2002, P&SS, 50, 299 Gaudi, B. S., et al. 2002, ApJ, 566, 463 Horne, K. 2003, MNRAS, submitted