Quantum gravitational optics: the induced phase

Mar 26, 2007 - Geometrical Optics (GO) is proved to be a useful approximation for ... Application of GO, to the electromagnetic wave propagation in a ...

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main this is not in general easy at all, and in practice many sophisticated theories ... A notation analogous to the definition of phase by Noh, Fouger`es and Mandel [3] may be introduced. eiθNFM = n3 − n4 + i(n5 − n6). √(n3 − n4)2 + (n5 −

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Various phase concepts may be treated as special cases of the maximum likelihood estimation. For example the dis- crete Fourier estimation that actually coincides with the op- erational phase of Noh, Foug`eres and Mandel is obtained for continuous Ga

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